Below you will find helpful resources to help assist you. If you need further assistance please feel free to contact us.


New Resource Released 2/16/2021: "Clinician's Guide to Use of Telehealth for CRT Service Provision".


RESNA is the premier professional membership organization dedicated to promoting the health and well-being of people with disabilities through increasing access to technology solutions.

RESNA position papers:

International Society of Wheelchair Professionals

The organization's mission is to serve as a global resource for wheelchair service standards and provision through advocacy, education, standards, evidence-based practice, innovation and a platform for information exchange. ISWP's vision is that all people who need wheeled mobility devices receive the appropriate products and services with dignity.

Wheelchair Service Training Package

The World Health Organization developed Wheelchair Service Training Packages (WSTP) to assist individuals who provide wheelchairs in the proper techniques of service delivery. There are four training packages: Basic, Intermediate, Managers, and Training of Trainers.

Posture 24/7 - Tamara Kittleson Aldred

Posture 24/7 focuses on raising awareness of 24 hour posture care management in the United States, as a non-invasive, caregiver and family empowering approach that can improve the quality of life for persons with neuromuscular impairments affecting their motor control and posture. This approach involves understanding and addressing postural alignment and potential need for supports in the three human orientations of lying, sitting and standing. This understanding is particularly essential for people at risk for or with complex wheelchair seating needs. The Resources page is provided as a public service to increase understanding of these issues.

APTA: Assistive Technology/Seating & Wheeled Mobility SIG

Assistive Technology/Seating & Wheeled Mobility SIG Mission & Objectives. To enable Academy of Neurologic Physical Therapy Members to increase knowledge, improve evidence-based practice, and foster the development of new practitioners in this specialized area of practice.

Access to Independence, Inc - Michelle Lange

Access to Independence, Inc. provides assistive technology solutions to people with disabilities. Assistive Technology includes the areas of positioning, mobility, speech generating devices, computers, and electronic aids to daily living. Access is how a person controls that technology, such as using a joystick to drive a power wheelchair. The goal of using assistive technology is to increase independence in daily living tasks, such as mobility. Access to independence, Inc provides services such as Evaluation, Treatment, Education, and Consultation. Check out free Resources and Education opportunities on a variety of Assistive Technology topics.

NRRTS: National Registered Rehabilitation Technology Suppliers

Continuing education offerings on-demand, through live webinars, and CEU articles


National MS Society:

  • How to Choose a Mobility Device (consumer info)
  • Basic Introduction to Seating and Mobility Evaluation for clinicians
  • Hosting a difficult conversation with your patient (with MS) about wheeled mobility - target audience MDs

United Spinal


NCART's mission is to ensure that federal, state, and private coverage and reimbursement policies allow individuals with significant disabilities to have adequate access to specialized and individually configured products and services.

In order to ensure access, NCART works with consumers, clinicians, and physicians along with federal, state, and private policy makers to establish and protect appropriate coverage, coding, supplier standards, and funding policies.


NRRTS is a professional association supporting individuals who provide Complex Rehab Technology (CRT), including wheelchairs and seated positioning systems for people of all ages and diagnoses who have postural or mobility deficits.

Paralyzed Veterans of America

Easy Stand


Waugh, K., and Crane, B. (2013).
A Clinical Application Guide to Standardized Wheelchair Seating Measures of the Body and Seating Support Surfaces (Rev. Ed)

This guide was created to increase the adoption of standardized measures and terminology related to wheelchair seated posture and seating equipment parameters. It is intended to translate a highly technical international standard into a format and language that is easier to understand and clinically useful. This standard, titled ISO 16840 (2006): Wheelchair seating-Part 1: Vocabulary, reference axis convention and measures for body segments, posture and postural support surfaces [1], was published in 2006.

This guide can be used as a reference manual to look up the most appropriate terms or measurements during clinical practice. Available from:

Waugh, K. (2013).
Glossary of Wheelchair Terms and Definitions, Version 1.0

This glossary was created to promote the adoption of standardized terminology related to wheelchairs and wheelchair seated posture. The field of wheelchair seating is interdisciplinary, and clear communication among team members is critical to effective decision making and positive outcomes for the consumer. This glossary includes a comprehensive, searchable list of terms and definitions related to wheelchairs, wheelchair seating, and wheelchair seated posture. Available from:

Special Seating: An Illustrated Guide - Revised Edition by Jean Anne Zollars, PT, DPT, MA 2010

This book was written to provide a step-by step guide to evaluate consumers and design seating/mobility systems based on those evaluations. With 500 clear illustrations, the book is easy-to-read and designed for anyone -- beginner through expert -- involved in creating appropriate seating and mobility systems for people with disabilities. The book breaks down the seating assessment process, beginning with the basics, then adds more complexity in terms of physical, postural and functional issues for consumers with more complex needs. "Hand simulation" (the therapist using hands and body to assess specific postural support for the seated consumer) as well as material simulation is emphasized. Intended to make the seating assessment and design process as clear as possible, the book is filled with case studies and design tips. As technology changes, the specific seating/mobility suggestions are based on the consumer's needs instead of current manufacturer's brands.

Special Seating: An Illustrated Guide - Revised Edition (373 pages, ISBN #978- 1-4507-3735-7) is available from Prickly Pear Publications for $69.95 plus shipping and handling. Ebook also available for $29.95. Order at

Seating and Wheeled Mobility: A Clinical Resource Guide

A Clinical Resource Guide presents clinical assessment considerations when working with a person with a disability who may need wheelchair seating for postural support, skin integrity, or a wheelchair base to best meet dependent or independent mobility needs.

Michelle L. Lange and Jean Minkel have designed this text to support occupational and physical therapists, complex rehabilitation technology suppliers, and even third-party payers who are interested in wheelchair seating and mobility assessment and applications. Seating and Wheeled Mobility provides a wide spectrum of information from foundational information for those practitioners who are new to the field to in-depth, population-specific information for practitioners who perhaps have not worked with a particular population in the past.

Wheelchair Seating and Positioning Guides- for therapists

These guides were developed to be a resource for emerging or novice practitioners in the practice of seating and wheeled mobility. They are an easy-to-read resource designed to be used in the field to answer questions such as (and many more):

  • How do I know if my client needs a wheelchair or seating equipment?
  • What is the process when I know my client needs equipment?
  • How do I measure for a wheelchair and seating equipment?
  • How do I choose a wheelchair seat cushion?
  • How do I choose a back support?

Order your free copy here:

Wound Care Guide- for therapists and wound care professionals

This guide was designed as an easy-to-read resource for clinicians involved in wound care to become more confident with addressing the seated posture. This resource fosters a more wholistic approach to the management of pressure injuries by simultaneously treating supine and seated postures.

Order your free copy here:


NCHPAD resources referring to wheelchair maintenance

1. Wheelchair Maintenance Guide You can click on the guide itself to view and print off.
2. The next page of the article contains its corresponding videos:
   a. Or can be found on our youtube channel here:
       i. Wheelchair Maintenance DIY: Cleaning Your Wheelchair
       ii. Wheelchair Maintenance DIY: Rear Wheel

Another resource that may be useful is our How To Video Series. This is a playlist on youtube that promotes independence and provides tips for individuals who use wheelchairs.


Masselink, C. E. (2018). Considering Technology in the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy, 6(3).doi: 10.15453/2168-6408.1497

Sajay Arthanat, Linda-Jeanne Elsaesser & Stephen Bauer (2017): A survey of assistive technology service providers in the USA, Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology

S. Bauer et al Promoting a standard for assistive technology service delivery Technology and Disability, vol. 26, no. 1, 2014, pp. 39-48 DOI: 10.3233/TAD-140403

Bauer, S.M. & Elsaesser, L-J. Integrating medical, assistive, and universal design products and technologies: Assistive Technology Device Classification (ATDC). Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 2012 Sep; 7(5):350-5.

Elsaesser, L-J & Bauer, S. M. Integrating medical, assistive, and universal design products and technologies: Assistive Technology Service Method (ATSM). Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 2012 Jul; 7(4):282-6.

Elsaesser, L., Bauer, S., Scherer, M. Assistive Technology Service Method (ATSM). Everyday Technology for Independence and Care AAATE 2011. Volume 29 Assistive Technology Research Series Edited by: G.J. Gelderblom, M. Soede, L. Adriaens and K. Miesenberger August 2011, 1280 pp., hardcover ISBN: 978-1-60750-813-7

Elsaesser, L., & Bauer, S. M. Provision of assistive technology services method (ATSM) according to evidence-based information and knowledge management. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 2011; 6(5):386-401. doi:10.3109/17483107.2011.557763.

Bauer, S.M., Elsaesser, L., & Arthanat, S. Assistive technology device classification based upon the International Classification System of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, May 2011; 6(3): 243-25. 3

Jones, D., Rader, J. (2015). Seating and wheeled mobility for older adults living in nursing homes. What has changed clinically in the past 20 years? Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation. Vol 31 no. 1, pp 10-18.


The purpose of the Wheelchair Service Provision Guide is to provide an appropriate framework for identifying the essential steps in the provision of a wheelchair. It is designed for use by all participants in the provision process including consumers, family members, caregivers, social service and health care professionals, suppliers, manufacturers, funding source personnel, and policy makers. This Guide does not specifically address requirements associated with any particular funding source. It provides guidance regarding when funding issues should be addressed in the process, and how to address them with the client, so that he or she is able to make informed decisions.

Wheelchair Service Provision Guide


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